Lax on Lax on Lax Group

Hi Lax(x3) group. You've got the traditional, long time source of energy and there's plenty of ways to make it useful and cleaner. As we research this area, I'll write comments in red to your group.

OIL & COAL

for the history aspect of this project, this link provides some good information:
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/extremeoil/history/1850.html

http://www.kidzworld.com/article/1423-fossil-fuel-energy
Coal is burned in power plants to make steam which turns turbines and makes electricity.

A refinery changes the oil into gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. The oil is burned and produces gases which turn a turbine to create electricity.

http://fossil.energy.gov/education/energylessons/coal/HS_Coal_Studyguide_draft1.pdf

http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html
Coal
Coal types (3):
Anthracite - This coal is the hardest and has more carbon than the others, which gives it higher energy content.
Lignite - This is the softest and has lower carbon levels, but it has high hydrogen and oxygen content.
‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Bituminous ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍- This is in the middle.
There is also peat, which is the precursor to coal. It is still found in many countries and is also used as an energy source.

The earliest known use of coal was in China. The Fu-shun mine in northeastern region of China was used to smelt copper as early as 3,000 years ago.

Some coal mines are dug by sinking vertical or horizontal shafts deep underground. Coal miners travel using elevators or trains underground to dig the coal.
Other coal is mined in strip mines. Steam shovels strip away the top layers above the coal. The layers are then restored after the coal is taken away.

Currently inexpensive, highly efficient, plentiful resource still exist

More coal reserves than any other in the country in the world

Creates half the electricity we use each year, also used in industries and manufacturing to make materials for steel.
Variety of products – plastic, tar, synthetic fibers, and medicine.

Mining techniques – Surface mining (60% of coal production) – Bulldozers level areas. Machines then clear away overburden (Material overlaying coal). Shovels load the coal into trucks.
Underground mining – used when coal is too deep on a hilly area. Miners go underground to extract to coal.
Longwall – cutters moves under a long panel of hydraulic roof supports. As the coal is cut, it falls onto a conveyor belt that removes it.
Room and Piller – Machine breaks coal from the face of the steam. Coal is put onto a conveyor belt for transportation to the surface.
Slope mine – mine shaft slanted downward from the surface to coal seam.

Stone Age – coal was believed to be used for heating and cooking.
100 – 200A.D. – Romans used cola for heating.
1300s – Hopi Indians used coal for heating.
1673 – Explorers discover coal in the United Sates.
1700s – English find a fuel that burns cleaner and hotter than wood charcoal.
1800s – Steam engine invented, fueled by coal. Industrial Revolution – steamships and railroads. Weapon factories began using coal. Coal is started by be used for heating.
1900s – Coal is accounted for three-quarters of the total energy used in the U.S. It is later replaced by oil and natural gas.
Today - coal counts for almost half of the electricity used in the United States.

Coal contains traces of sulfur and nitrogen. When coal is burned, the chemicals are released into the air. They combined with the water vapor (clouds), and it form acid rain. Dirt and tiny minerals mix in with coal. When the coal is burned, the minerals cannot be burned and make up ash. Coal is formed form carbon, like all fossil fuels. When coal is burned, it also gives off carbon, which mixes with the oxygen to form Carbon dioxide. This gas causes can trap the earth’s heat. Technological advances are greatly improving the coal burning process. Scientist have founds way to capture the pollutants given off by coal. We also have technology that limits the release of carbon.

Scientists have figured out ways to remove 99.9% of the sulfur and dirt particles from coal gas. They have also found a way to turn the carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid fuels. Gasification creates a more efficient way to form energy. The more efficient plans use less fuel to generate power, therefore less carbon dioxide is produced.

Carbon sequestration is another approach to combat the impacts of carbon dioxide by using carbon capture and storage. The process captures carbon dioxide and stores it for long periods of time. They

Oil

Origins:

Petroleum, or oil, is a fossil fuel made from the remains of animals and plants from millions of years ago. Because of these origins, oil is nonrenewable, there isn't an unlimited amount of it. In time, the earth will run out.
It was formed more than 300 million years ago. Scientists think that tiny diatoms are the source of oil (diatoms are sea creatures, the size of a pin head, that can convert sunlight directly into stored energy).

‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Oil has been used for more than 5,000-6,000 years. Ancient Egyptians used oil as a medicine for wounds. Oil was used in lamps to provide light also‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍.
Native Americans used oil as medicine and to make canoes water-proof. They also taught George Washington's troops how to treat frostbite with oil.

Petroleum oil began to replace whale oil in lamps. Whale oil cost was very high.
Companies drill to the deposits deep below the earth’s surface. Oil and natural gas are then pumped from below the ground by oil rigs.


currently inexpensive

http://www.need.org/needpdf/infobook_activities/ElemInfo/PetroE.pdf

http://www.geotech.org/survey/geotech/Oil.pdf

History of Oil:
January 10, 1901: An oilfield in Spindletop, Texas produces a “gusher”. This spewed 100,000 barrels of oil per day. This town became famous for its oil production and really sparked a new era of oil production in the U.S.

World War I: Oil was highly valued by the world’s major powers and was used to contribute to oil-powered naval ships, horseless vehicles such as trucks and tanks, and military airplanes.

Oil making a global expansion. Oil helped contribute to plastics, synthetics, and other industries. But with these benefits, came the awareness of environmental damage and the risks in working with oil.
1973: OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) is formed with its first member states being ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍. OPEC is responsible for negotiating with oil companies over prices and petroleum production.

1973: OPEC declares and oil embargo against all countries that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War. This included the United States, and as oil prices rose up, the country suffered the worst recession since World War II.

1989: Oil tanker Exxon Valdez pierced in Southern Alaska and it dumped 39,000 tons of oil.

-Oil can be found in many different ways including oil sand and it can also be pumped out of parts of the ocean like the gulf of mexico

-‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Oil accounts for almost 40% of all energy in the United States‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

-Oil is converted to energy in three primary ways

-Conventional Steam: Oil is burned to heat water creating steam and electricity

-Combustion Turbine: Oil is burned under pressure producing hot exhaust gases which spins turbines producing electricity

-Combined-cycle Technology: Oil is first combusted in a combustion turbine, using the heated exhaust gases to generate electricity. After these exhaust gases are recovered, they heat water in a boiler, creating steam to drive a second turbine. (This method is the most efficient because it creates the most energy for the same amount of oil as the first two.)

Cons of Oil and Coal:

-It is a dirty energy source

-It can harm the environment when it is extracted

-‍‍‍It can cause Oil spills‍‍‍

-Oil and Coal are both nonrenewable

-Burning oil releases carbon dioxide which is harmful to the environment
- Oil can pollute soil and water, injuring the animals that live in the area.

-Price of oil continues to rise because there is less and less of it

Pros of Oil and Coal:

-Only one of its kind. There are nogenuinely-viable alternatives that can match it yet.

-Oil produces high energy when combusted

-There is a lot of untouched oil in Canada (oil sands) that is ready to be used

-Large reserves of oil can be found all across the world ex. Russia, Canada, Saudi Arabia

Drs. Dugan, Gaspard, and Leonardi: Good work, but where do you see the future for coal and oil? How do you see the large infrastructure and various companies surrounding it changing? Is there research into new sources of coal or oil - deep sea drilling, shale, or man-made material? The industry has the history and background to the use, storage, implementation, etc. but what comes after that? How do you see meeting the needs of the consumers with the cost and environmental impact?

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Dr. Deratzou, like many others, I do believe the oil industry is heading in the wrong direction. It doesn't have a bright future, BUT, there is still hope: Russia has the longest coast line in the world. Many believe it to be worthless because it is covered in ice. However, as a result of global warming, it is beginning to melt. This region, being the Arctic, is said to hold one fifth of the world's undiscovered oil. Despite severe weather in this region, the Russians are already on top of this discovery and have sent icebreakers north. I don't know what to make of this yet, but it could be beneficial for the United States. I provided a link below containing information on this story.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/16/business/global/16arctic.html?pagewanted=all
There are numerous ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍new resources ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍of oil and coal around the world that could be used. First of all there are large deposits of oil sand in Canada that the United states could use. As far as the future goes, this oil would last the United States and Canada about 100 years so this is a good long term solution. Also this is a good solution because this source of energy is close to home and we wouldn't have to ship as much oil from overseas if we used the source in canada. Oil from Canada would also make gas prices go down because we wouldn't have to rely on overseas oil as much. Also the Oil pipeline going from Canada through the United states would create an estimated 100,000 new jobs.

One problem with oil and coal use in the future is the dnger of pollution. Oil and Coal both pollute the environment when they are burned, and this creates a problem because our earth is already badly polluted as it is and pollution causes problems like global warming. Another problem is there is no good way to reduce the emissions produced by coal and oil, so it is a good and reliable energy source but it isn't clean and is bad for the environment

An agreement with Canada was recently denied by President Obama due to the damage it could do the environment, but i think as time goes on the US will have to utilize these large oil reserves in Canada as the supply of oil gets lower and lower
http://fossil.energy.gov/education/energylessons/coal/HS_Coal_Studyguide_draft1.pdf

5 Pros of Coal


1) cheapest source of energy
2) there is much of it
3) provides many jobs
4) AMERICAN made. We do not need to import it.
5) It provides 56% of the electricity used in the nation each day.

http://www.coaleducation.org/q&a/10_reasons_why_coal.htm